Previous studies tell us that women are less likely than men to negotiate pay, and that when women do negotiate, they walk away with less than men do—especially when it comes to high-skill, high-paying jobs. In a new simulation study, researchers sought to find out exactly how women end up losing out in pay negotiations. The researchers found that when female participants had to negotiate a monetary sum with a female firm representative, they asked for and ended up with the same amount as most male participants. When they had to negotiate with a male firm representative, though, women asked for and walked away with less. The researchers pointed out that the only time there was a gendered difference in outcome was when a man was in the position of power and a woman was in the less powerful position—in other words, male participants walked away with the same amount of money, regardless of whether the firm representative with whom they negotiated was male or female. The implications of these findings are stark. If women end up with less when negotiating with men, the majority of women will end up with less—because the majority of managers are men.
It may only take 10 minutes with a trained canvasser to shift people’s attitudes in favor of transgender rights. In a new study, researchers found that after 10 minutes of “deep canvassing,” during which a canvasser asked the voter to connect their own experiences of discrimination with those of transgender people, voters demonstrated a positive shift in attitudes that lasted even three months after the conversation. Voters also showed increased support for concrete policy proposals like extending non-discrimination laws to transgender people. To test the durability of this attitude change, researchers showed participants an anti-transgender rights commercial and found that there was only a brief dip in support before pro-transgender attitudes eventually prevailed. Deep canvassing was successful across age, political affiliation, and race, and the overall average change in attitude was “roughly equivalent to the degree that social attitudes toward gay people changed between 1998 and 2012.”
Many people are unaware of the pervasive, deeply rooted presence of ableism in our society, making it easy for ableist views to creep into casual conversation. Editor, book publicist, and activist Alaina Leary offers three tips on how to address the ableist views of our loved ones, championing the belief that we are all “capable of growth and change.” First, she stresses the importance of seeking out the work of disabled writers and activists to better understand the myths and misconceptions non-disabled people often put forth. This step will better prepare you to discuss ableism with your loved ones. Leary then describes “calling in” as a more effective alternative to “calling out.” Calling people in lends itself well to educating others on issues like invisible disabilities and challenging the myth that one is faking a disability if not using a mobility aid. Lastly, sharing resources on ableism via social media can be a way of “exposing them to a reality they didn’t know about before.” Leary explains that, as someone with a disability, it can be exhausting to “constantly [educate] others about ableism and [try] to get them to unpack their own ableist ideas.” It becomes an act of good allyship when non-disabled people hold these discussions with their loved ones instead.